direct & indirect

Direct and Indirect Speech

(Sentences do not directly and indirectly)

1.   Direct sentence (Direct Speech) is a sentence which, when reported speech stating the actual words. These sentences are not connected by “that” it must be with (punctuation) comma.

2.   Sentence indirectly (indirect speech) is a sentence which, when reported speech gave substance to the words used by the speaker and not the actual words. In indirect speech sentences were associated with the word “That”.
Reporting verb tense is not changed, but the present tense reported speech must be changed based on time of reporting verb forms. Two ways to change the time in reported speech.

First Rule
If the reporting verb is past tense, present tense verb in reported speech must be

changed into one of four forms of past tense.

Direct-Indirect Speech Speech
Simple present simple past-to-
Example: He said “The woman comes” to “He said that the woman Came”
From the example above we can conclude the change of time and reported the following speech:
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Simple Present
Present continuous
Present Perfect
Present perfect continuous
Simple past
Past continuous
Future Simple past
Past continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continous
Except :
If the reported speech related to a general truth or fact which has become a habit, or a simple present indefinite present in reported speech are not changed into an appropriate past tense, but remain exactly as is, for example:
Direct speech, Indirect speech
He said “The sun rises in the east” – “He said That the sun rises in the east”

Second Rule

  1. When the news reported speech sentences

With this Regulation reporting verb is considered in the present or future tense, and whenever a particular happen.
Reporting verb-reported speech
Any tense-present tense (form any time)
Direct: She says to her friend, “I have been waiting”
Indirect: She says to her friend That he has been waiting “

  1. If the reported speech is Tanya sentence

a) Reporting verb say or tell converted to ask or inquire. By repeating said Tanya and change tense if the question starts with Tanya said.
Direct: He said to me, “Nowhere are you going?”
Indirect: Uh asked me I was going Nowhere ”
b) Using the if / whether as a liaison between reporting and reported speech verb tenses and repeat.
Direct: He said to me, “Are you going away today?”
Indirect: He asked me whether I going today

  1. The phrase command
    Direct: He said to his servant, “Go away at once!”
    Indirect: He ordered his servant to go away at once.

Direct Speech (direct line) is a sentence uttered by the speaker. Indirect Speech

(indirect sentence) is a sentence that says, greeting someone to report back without changing the intent or content of the speaker’s words. Indirect Speech can also be called reported speech (sentences that are reported).
Examples of direct speech (quotation marks in the content’s words):
Tugio said, “I am happy.”
Tugio said, “I’m happy.
Examples of indirect speech (no quotes):
Tugio said (that) he was happy.
Tugio said (that) he’s happy.
Compare these sentences.
Tugio said, “I am happy.” (Direct)
Tugio said (that) he was happy. (Indirect)
– In indirect speech / reported speech or there are changes in verb tenses in sentences spoken by the speaker.
– I am happy in direct speech turned into he was happy in indirect speech.
– I be a he because the speaker is Tugio.
– Am be as simple present was changed to simple past.
– (That) means that: the word is arbitrary, may be used, may also not.
Marni greeting you want to convey to others. There are two ways to do it. First, you can repeat the exact words in direct speech Marni.
Marni said, “I am cooking.”
Mary says, “I was cooking.”
Second, you can use indirect speech.
Marni said (that) She was cooking.
Mary says (that) she was cooking.
Compare these sentences.
Mary said, “I am cooking.” (Direct)
Marni said (that) She was cooking. (Indirect)
– I became Milby (because whoever Marni).
– Am a was (the past tense).
– (That) means that (may be used, should also not).
am / is to be was
are to be was / Were
have / has to be Had
Had to have to be
Had to has to be
Should Marshall be
will of a would
Can be Could
May be Might
Want to be wanted
drinks to be drank
wrote write a
In reported speech / indirect speech there are any changes in the past tense (the past).


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